Diagnosing Dysphagia and Chest Pain
A 63-year-old man was referred to a gastroenterologist after reporting dysphagia and chest pain. He underwent several trials with proton pump inhibitors, but his symptoms persisted, leading the gastroenterologist to perform upper endoscopy. When a barium x-ray and standard endoscopy failed to reveal the source of the dysphagia, esophageal manometry was performed, which was suggestive but not confirmative of achalasia.
The patient was referred to Duke Gastroenterology to confirm a diagnosis and determine the best treatment approach.
Question: What tools were used to evaluate and diagnose the patient?